Irischer Präsident

Irischer Präsident similar documents

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Irischer Präsident Video

With the hope of ensuring the implementation of the Act at the end of the war through Ireland's engagement in the war , Redmond and his Irish National Volunteers supported the UK and its Allies.

The remainder of the Irish Volunteers , who opposed any support of the UK, launched an armed insurrection against British rule in the Easter Rising , together with the Irish Citizen Army.

This commenced on 24 April with the declaration of independence. After a week of heavy fighting, primarily in Dublin, the surviving rebels were forced to surrender their positions.

The majority were imprisoned but fifteen of the prisoners including most of the leaders were executed as traitors to the UK.

This included Patrick Pearse , the spokesman for the rising and who provided the signal to the volunteers to start the rising, as well as James Connolly , socialist and founder of the Industrial Workers of the World union and both the Irish and Scottish Labour movements.

These events, together with the Conscription Crisis of , had a profound effect on changing public opinion in Ireland.

The Declaration was mainly a restatement of the Proclamation with the additional provision that Ireland was no longer a part of the United Kingdom.

O'Kelly to the Paris Peace Conference of , but it was not admitted. Northern Ireland exercised its right under the treaty to leave the new Dominion and rejoined the United Kingdom on 8 December It did so by making an address to the King requesting, "that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland.

The country had a governor-general representing the monarch , a bicameral parliament, a cabinet called the "Executive Council", and a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council.

Pro-treaty forces, led by Michael Collins , argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it".

However, because the anti-treaty IRA lacked an effective command structure and because of the pro-treaty forces' defensive tactics throughout the war, Michael Collins and his pro-treaty forces were able to build up an army with many tens of thousands of World War I veterans from the disbanded Irish regiments of the British Army, capable of overwhelming the anti-treatyists.

British supplies of artillery, aircraft, machine-guns and ammunition boosted pro-treaty forces, and the threat of a return of Crown forces to the Free State removed any doubts about the necessity of enforcing the treaty.

The lack of public support for the anti-treaty forces often called the Irregulars and the determination of the government to overcome the Irregulars contributed significantly to their defeat.

Although the constitution established the office of President of Ireland , the question over whether Ireland was a republic remained open.

Diplomats were accredited to the king, but the president exercised all internal functions of a head of state. This rule was changed 10 days after Ireland declared itself a republic, with the London Declaration of 28 April Ireland did not reapply when the rules were altered to permit republics to join.

Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December , after having been denied membership because of its neutral stance during the Second World War and not supporting the Allied cause.

However, the founding EEC members remained skeptical regarding Ireland's economic capacity, neutrality, and unattractive protectionist policy.

The prospect of EEC membership became doubtful in when French President General Charles de Gaulle stated that France opposed Britain's accession, which ceased negotiations with all other candidate countries.

However, in his successor, Georges Pompidou , was not opposed to British and Irish membership. Negotiations began and in the Treaty of Accession was signed.

A referendum held in confirmed Ireland's entry, and it finally joined the EEC in Ireland became one of the world's fastest growing economies by the late s in what was known as the Celtic Tiger period, which lasted until the global Financial crisis of — However, since , Ireland has experienced increased economic activity.

In the Northern Ireland question, the British and Irish governments started to seek a peaceful resolution to the violent conflict involving many paramilitaries and the British Army in Northern Ireland known as " The Troubles ".

A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, known as the Good Friday Agreement , was approved in in referendums north and south of the border.

As part of the peace settlement, the territorial claim to Northern Ireland in Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland was removed by referendum.

The island is bounded to the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the northeast by the North Channel. The western landscape mostly consists of rugged cliffs, hills and mountains.

The central lowlands are extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, as well as significant areas of bogland and several lakes.

River Shannon , which traverses the central lowlands, is the longest river in Ireland at kilometres or miles in length. The west coast is more rugged than the east, with numerous islands, peninsulas , headlands and bays.

Ireland is the least forested country in Europe. Southwestern areas experience the most rainfall as a result of south westerly winds, while Dublin receives the least.

Sunshine duration is highest in the southeast of the country. The sunniest months are May and June, which average between 5 and 6.

The extreme southeast gets most sunshine, averaging over 7 hours a day in early summer. December is the dullest month, with an average daily sunshine ranging from about 1 hour in the north to almost 2 hours in the extreme southeast.

The sunniest summer in the years from to was , according to measurements made at the Phoenix Park in Dublin; was the dullest.

Ireland is a constitutional republic with a parliamentary system of government. The President serves as head of state , and is elected for a seven-year term and may be re-elected once.

The President is primarily a figurehead , but is entrusted with certain constitutional powers with the advice of the Council of State.

The office has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgment on its constitutionality.

Higgins became the ninth President of Ireland on 11 November Most Taoisigh have served as the leader of the political party that gains the most seats in national elections.

It has become customary for coalitions to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since The Seanad is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the Taoiseach , six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis.

The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. According to the Constitution of Ireland , parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law.

Ireland has been a member state of the European Union since , but is not part of the Schengen Area. Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the Common Travel Area , which is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

However, some identification is required at airports and seaports. The Local Government Act [72] is the founding document of the present system of local government, while the Twentieth Amendment to the constitution of provided for its constitutional recognition.

The twenty-six traditional counties of Ireland are not always coterminous with administrative divisions although they are generally used as a geographical frame of reference by the population of Ireland.

The Local Government Reform Act provides for a system of thirty-one local authorities — twenty-six county councils, two city and county councils and three city councils.

Local authorities are responsible for matters such as planning, local roads, sanitation, and libraries.

Counties with greater populations have multiple constituencies, some of more than one county, but generally do not cross county boundaries.

The counties are grouped into eight regions , each with a Regional Authority composed of members delegated by the various county and city councils in the region.

The regions do not have any direct administrative role as such, but they serve for planning, coordination and statistical purposes. Ireland has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy.

The court system consists of the Supreme Court , the Court of Appeal , the High Court , the Circuit Court and the District Court , all of which apply the Irish law and hear both civil and criminal matters.

Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The High Court, Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court have authority, by means of judicial review , to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the constitution and the law.

Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure.

It is headed by the Garda Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government. Most uniformed members do not routinely carry firearms.

Standard policing is traditionally carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton and pepper spray.

The Military Police is the corps of the Irish Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment.

In wartime, additional tasks include the provision of a traffic control organisation to allow rapid movement of military formations to their mission areas.

Other wartime roles include control of prisoners of war and refugees. Ireland's citizenship laws relate to "the island of Ireland", including islands and seas, thereby extending them to Northern Ireland , which is part of the United Kingdom.

Therefore, anyone born in Northern Ireland who meets the requirements for being an Irish citizen, such as birth on the island of Ireland to an Irish or British citizen parent or a parent who is entitled to live in Northern Ireland or the Republic without restriction on their residency, [75] may exercise an entitlement to Irish citizenship, such as an Irish passport.

Foreign relations are substantially influenced by membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United Kingdom and United States are also important.

Ireland tends towards independence in foreign policy; thus the country is not a member of NATO and has a longstanding policy of military neutrality.

This policy has helped the Irish Defence Forces to be successful in their contributions to peace-keeping missions with the United Nations since , during the Congo Crisis and subsequently in Cyprus , Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Despite Irish neutrality during World War II , Ireland had more than 50, participants in the war through enlistment in the British armed forces.

The airport had previously been used for the invasion of Afghanistan in , as well as the First Gulf War. It is small but well equipped, with almost 10, full-time military personnel and over 2, in reserve.

By , over 40, Irish service personnel had served in international UN peacekeeping missions. The Irish Air Corps is the air component of the Defence Forces and operates sixteen fixed wing aircraft and eight helicopters.

The Irish Naval Service is Ireland's navy, and operates eight patrol ships , and smaller numbers of inflatable boats and training vessels, and has armed boarding parties capable of seizing a ship and a special unit of frogmen.

Ireland's special forces include the Army Ranger Wing , which trains and operates with international special operations units.

Ireland is an open economy 6th on the Index of Economic Freedom , and ranks first for "high-value" foreign direct investment FDI flows. The alternative metric modified Gross National Income GNI is intended to give a more accurate view of "activity in the domestic economy".

Ireland adopted the euro currency in along with eleven other EU member states. The country officially exited recession in , assisted by a growth in exports from US multinationals in Ireland.

One-third of the emigrants were aged between 15 and Since then, Ireland has been able to sell long term bonds at record rates. Ireland continues to de-leverage its domestic private sector while growing its US multinational-driven economy.

The " multinational tax schemes " foreign firms use in Ireland materially distort Irish economic statistics. From the creation of the IFSC , the country experienced strong and sustained economic growth which fuelled a dramatic rise in Irish consumer borrowing and spending, and Irish construction and investment, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period.

Their withdrawal from the over-borrowed Irish credit system would precipitate a deep Irish property correction which would then lead to the collapse of the Irish banking system.

Ireland's successful "low-tax" economy opens it to accusations of being a "corporate tax haven ", [] [] [] and led to it being "blacklisted".

Although multinational corporations dominate Ireland's export sector, exports from other sources also contribute significantly to the national income.

The activities of multinational companies based in Ireland have made it one of the largest exporters of pharmaceutical agents, medical devices and software-related goods and services in the world.

Ireland's exports also relate to the activities of large Irish companies such as Ryanair , Kerry Group and Smurfit Kappa and exports of mineral resources: Ireland is the seventh largest producer of zinc concentrates, and the twelfth largest producer of lead concentrates.

The country also has significant deposits of gypsum , limestone , and smaller quantities of copper, silver, gold, barite , and dolomite.

Other goods exports include agri-food, cattle, beef, dairy products, and aluminum. Ireland's major imports include data processing equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, and clothing.

Financial services provided by multinational corporations based at the Irish Financial Services Centre also contribute to Irish exports.

The EU is by far the country's largest trading partner, accounting for The United Kingdom is the most important trading partner within the EU, accounting for Outside the EU, the United States accounted for There are In , the Barryroe field was confirmed to have up to 1.

There have been significant efforts to increase the use of renewable and sustainable forms of energy in Ireland, particularly in wind power , with 3, MegaWatts [] of wind farms being constructed, some for the purpose of export.

The country's three main international airports at Dublin , Shannon and Cork serve many European and intercontinental routes with scheduled and chartered flights.

The London to Dublin air route is the ninth busiest international air route in the world, and also the busiest international air route in Europe, with 14, flights between the two in Ryanair is Europe's largest low-cost carrier, [] the second largest in terms of passenger numbers, and the world's largest in terms of international passenger numbers.

Dublin is the centre of the network with two main stations, Heuston station and Connolly station , linking to the country's cities and main towns.

Motorways , national primary roads and national secondary roads are managed by Transport Infrastructure Ireland , while regional roads and local roads are managed by the local authorities in each of their respective areas.

The road network is primarily focused on the capital, but motorways connect it to other major Irish cities including Cork, Limerick, Waterford and Galway.

Genetic research suggests that the earliest settlers migrated from Iberia following the most recent ice age. Migrants from the two latter eras still represent the genetic heritage of most Irish people.

The population of Ireland stood at 4,, in , an increase of 8. The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. At the time of the census, the number of non-Irish nationals was recorded at , The five largest sources of non-Irish nationals were Poland , , the UK , , Lithuania 36, , Romania 29, and Latvia 19, respectively.

There were four new additions to the top ten largest non-Irish nationalities in Brazilian 13, , Spanish 12, , Italian 11, , and French 11, Dublin Cork.

Limerick Galway. The following is a list of functional urban areas in Ireland as defined by the OECD and their approximate populations as of [update].

The Irish Constitution describes Irish as the "national language", but English is the dominant language. Irish is spoken as a community language only in a small number of rural areas mostly in the west and south of the country, collectively known as the Gaeltacht.

Except in Gaeltacht regions, road signs are usually bilingual. While the state is officially bilingual, citizens can often struggle to access state services in Irish and most government publications are not available in both languages, even though citizens have the right to deal with the state in Irish.

In the Irish Defence Forces , all foot and arms drill commands are given in the Irish language. As a result of immigration, Polish is the most widely spoken language in Ireland after English, with Irish as the third most spoken.

Other languages spoken in Ireland include Shelta , spoken by Irish Travellers, and a dialect of Scots is spoken by some Ulster Scots people in Donegal.

Some secondary schools also offer Ancient Greek , Hebrew and Latin. The study of Irish is compulsory for Leaving Certificate students, but some may qualify for an exemption in some circumstances, such as learning difficulties or entering the country after age Healthcare in Ireland is provided by both public and private healthcare providers.

Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation.

A person may be required to pay a subsidised fee for certain health care received; this depends on income, age, illness or disability.

All maternity services are provided free of charge and children up to the age of 6 months. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department.

In some circumstances this fee is not payable or may be waived. Anyone holding a European Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals.

Outpatient services are also provided for free. However, the majority of patients on median incomes or above are required to pay subsidised hospital charges.

Private health insurance is available to the population for those who want to avail of it. The average life expectancy in Ireland in was Ireland has three levels of education: primary, secondary and higher education.

The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills.

Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities. Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination.

There are approximately 3, primary schools in Ireland. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof.

A sanctioned system of preference does exist, where students of a particular religion may be accepted before those who do not share the ethos of the school, in a case where a school's quota has already been reached.

The Leaving Certificate , which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system.

Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis.

The Programme for International Student Assessment , coordinated by the OECD , currently ranks Ireland as having the fourth highest reading score, ninth highest science score and thirteenth highest mathematics score, among OECD countries, in its assessment.

In addition, 37 percent of Ireland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world.

Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from The Church of Ireland , at 2.

Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations.

Immigration has contributed to a growth in Hindu and Muslim populations. Saint Patrick is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint.

Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated on 17 March in Ireland and abroad as the Irish national day, with parades and other celebrations.

As with other predominantly Catholic European states, Ireland underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century. In , the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups was deleted by the Fifth Amendment in a referendum.

Article 44 remains in the Constitution: "The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God.

It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion. Religious studies was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in Although many schools are run by religious organisations, a secularist trend is occurring among younger generations.

Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic , and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion in the 12th century, and gradual British conquest and colonisation beginning in the 16th century, Ireland became influenced by English and Scottish culture.

Subsequently, Irish culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere , Catholic Europe , and other Celtic regions.

The Irish diaspora , one of the world's largest and most dispersed, has contributed to the globalisation of Irish culture, producing many prominent figures in art, music, and science.

Ireland has made a significant contribution to world literature in both the English and Irish languages. Modern Irish fiction began with the publishing of the novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift.

Bram Stoker is best known as the author of the novel Dracula. James Joyce — published his most famous work Ulysses in , which is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin.

Edith Somerville continued writing after the death of her partner Martin Ross in Dublin's Annie M. Smithson was one of several authors catering for fans of romantic fiction in the s and s.

Patricia Lynch was a prolific children's author in the 20th century, while Eoin Colfer 's works were NYT Best Sellers in this genre in the early 21st century.

The history of Irish theatre begins with the expansion of the English administration in Dublin during the early 17th century, and since then, Ireland has significantly contributed to English drama.

In its early history, theatrical productions in Ireland tended to serve political purposes, but as more theatres opened and the popular audience grew, a more diverse range of entertainments were staged.

Many Dublin-based theatres developed links with their London equivalents, and British productions frequently found their way to the Irish stage.

However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. In the 18th century, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage at that time.

At the beginning of the 20th century, theatre companies dedicated to the staging of Irish plays and the development of writers, directors and performers began to emerge, which allowed many Irish playwrights to learn their trade and establish their reputations in Ireland rather than in Britain or the United States.

Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects.

It has influenced various music genres, such as American country and roots music, and to some extent modern rock.

It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock. Ireland has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues.

Opera Ireland produces large-scale operas in Dublin, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Wexford Opera Festival , which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during October and November.

Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since The phenomenon Riverdance originated as an interval performance during the contest.

Irish dance can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dance. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms.

Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country.

In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Performance dance is traditionally referred to as stepdance.

Irish stepdance , popularised by the show Riverdance , is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary.

The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet.

The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe". The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture.

Christianity introduced simple monastic houses , such as Clonmacnoise , Skellig Michael and Scattery Island.

A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts of Egypt. Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans during the late 12th century, such as Dublin Castle and Kilkenny Castle , [] and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism.

These charters specifically governed the design of these towns. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country.

Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's , were also introduced by the Normans. Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in , Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century.

The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland regulates the practice of architecture in the state. John A. Costello — Fine Gael [5].

Dublin South-East. Dublin South-Central. Jack Lynch — Liam Cosgrave — Cork City. Charles Haughey — Dublin Artane. Garret FitzGerald — Dublin North-Central.

Albert Reynolds — John Bruton born Bertie Ahern born Dublin Central. Brian Cowen born Enda Kenny born Leo Varadkar born Dublin West.

Cork South-Central. Prime Minister. Chief Executive. First Minister and deputy First Minister. Sir James Craig — [6]. Down — North Down — John Miller Andrews — Mid Down.

Andrews ministry. Sir Basil Brooke — [7]. Brookeborough ministry. Unter Umständen hat er die Meinung des Staatsrates einzuholen, ohne an diese gebunden zu sein.

Für den Fall eines vorzeitigen Ausscheidens des Präsidenten aus seinem Amt muss der Nachfolger innerhalb von 60 Tagen gewählt werden.

In dieser Zwischenzeit übernimmt die sog. Presidential Commission die Aufgaben des Präsidenten.

Genau genommen endet die Amtszeit des alten Präsidenten um Mitternacht am Tag vor der Amtseinführung des neuen Präsidenten. Auch in der Zeit von Mitternacht bis zur tatsächlichen Amtseinführung übernimmt diese Kommission die Aufgaben des Präsidenten.

Auch der Staatsrat kann die Aufgaben des Präsidenten laut Verfassung übernehmen, falls sowohl der Präsident als auch die Kommission dazu nicht in der Lage sind; eine Situation, die bisher nicht aufgetreten ist.

Das Gebäude liegt im Phoenix Park in Dublin. Obwohl der Amtseid wahlweise in einer der beiden Sprachen abgelegt werden kann, hat dies bisher jeder einzelne Präsident auf Irisch getan.

Selbst Erskine Hamilton Childers , der niemals Irisch gelernt hatte, wählte — wenn auch widerwillig — die irische Version.

Der Tag der Amtseinführung beinhaltet diverse Rituale und Zeremonien. In den er Jahren hielt man, anstelle der bisherigen nach Konfession getrennten Gottesdienste, einen für beide Konfessionen in der jeweiligen Kathedrale ab.

Dieser konfessions- und religionsübergreifende Segen fand seit bisher auch bei allen weiteren Amtseinführungen statt.

Doch es gibt auch Kritik an der Einbindung des religiösen Segens in die eigentliche Amtseinführungszeremonie, da einige Gäste gewisse Vorbehalte gegenüber anderen Konfessionen haben könnten, und deshalb Überlegungen, diesen Teil wieder auszugliedern.

Bis gab es sogar eine berittene Eskorte. Doch bei der Dublin Horse Show passierte mit diesem Gefährt ein Unfall, was dazu führte, dass seit für die Fahrt des Präsidenten ein Rolls-Royce verwendet wird — bis heute übrigens das originale Fahrzeug von Morning Suit — ähnlich einem Cutaway zusammen mit einem schwarzen Samt-Hut zu tragen.

Morning Suits waren die Standardkleidung bei Präsidenteneinführungen bis , als bei der Zeremonie von Mary McAleese ihr Mann, der formelle Kleidung nicht mochte, diesen nicht trug.

Den Botschaftern wurde es ebenfalls nahegelegt, keine Landeskleidung zu tragen.

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