Mikrotransaktionen (K)eine Kleinigkeit: Mikrotransaktionen in AAA-Games
Der Begriff Micropayment, Kleinbetragzahlung bzw. Mikrozahlung bezeichnet ein Zahlungsverfahren geringer Summen, die vor allem beim Kauf von „Paid Content“, also digitalen Gütern wie Musikstücken und Zeitungsartikeln, aber beispielsweise auch beim. Besonders unscheinbare Kaufoptionen nennen sich "Mikrotransaktion". Für einen kleinen Betrag an erarbeitetem Spiel- oder Echtgeld lassen. Mikrotransaktionen erregten erstmals große Aufmerksamkeit, als Bethesda Softworks "The Elder Scrolls IV" veröffentlichte: Oblivion für PC und Xbox Dagegen sind die Einnahmen aus dem Kauf von Spielen rückläufig. Die kleinste aller Kaufoptionen eines Games nennt sich „Mikrotransaktion“. Activison-Blizzard, ein Goliath der Videospiel-Branche, verdiente im Jahr alleine vier Milliarden Dollar mit Mikrotransaktionen – weit mehr.
Activison-Blizzard, ein Goliath der Videospiel-Branche, verdiente im Jahr alleine vier Milliarden Dollar mit Mikrotransaktionen – weit mehr. Wenn Publisher auf Mikrotransaktionen setzen, werden die Spiele nicht nur teurer, oft leidet auch die Qualität darunter. Limit für Mikrotransaktionen. Entwickler Jagex hat gegenüber dem britischen Parlament ausgerichtet, dass ein Drittel ihrer Einnahmen aus.
This method has also been called a form of underage gambling. Items and features available by microtransaction can range from cosmetic such as decorative character attire to functional such as weapons and items.
Some games allow players to purchase items that can be acquired through normal means, but some games include items that can only be obtained through microtransaction.
Some developers   ensure that only cosmetic items are available this way to keep gameplay fair and balanced. The reasons why people, especially children, continue to pay for microtransactions are embedded in human psychology.
Microtransactions are most commonly provided through a custom store interface placed inside the app for which the items are being sold.
Apple provides a framework dubbed "in-app purchases" for initiating and processing transactions. Initially, microtransactions in games took the form of exchanging real-life money for the virtual currency used in the game that the user was playing.
Notable examples of games that used this model in the early s include the social networking site Habbo Hotel , developed by the Finnish company Sulake , and Linden Lab 's virtual world game Second Life.
Both free games allow users to customize the clothing and style of their characters, buy and collect furniture, and purchase special, 'flashy' animations to show off to others using some type of virtual currency.
Diamonds are only obtained through buying Credits with real-life money. Second Life in particular have generated massive amounts of economic activity and profits for both Linden Lab and Second Life ' s users.
The arcade game Double Dragon 3: The Rosetta Stone was infamous for its use of microtransactions to purchase items in the game.
It had shops where players insert coins into arcade machines to purchase upgrades, power-ups , health, weapons, special moves and player characters.
In the early s, Valve popularised the notion of microtransactions in Team Fortress 2. Through the usage of the in-game Mann Co Store , players are able to purchase currency in 'Supply Crate Keys' to open uncrated items for form or functional use in the game.
In the late s and early s, games like Facebook 's FarmVille , Electronic Arts 's The Simpsons: Tapped Out and Supercell 's Clash of Clans pioneered a new approach to implanting microtransactions into games.
In conjunction with having virtual currency be used to purchase items, tools, furniture, and animals, These mobile games made it so users can purchase currency and then use that currency to reduce or eliminate the wait times attached to certain actions, like planting and growing carrots or collecting taxes from the townspeople.
From around , another major transition in how microtransactions are implemented in games occurred.
These types of games heavily employ the use of the loot box microtransaction type. Game developing corporations, like Electronic Arts EA and Activision Blizzard , make billions of dollars through the purchase of their microtransactions.
Mobile web analytics company Flurry reported on July 7, , that based on its research, the revenue from free-to-play games had overtaken revenue from premium games that earn revenue through traditional means in Apple's App Store, for the top grossing games when comparing the results for the months of January and June It used data that it analyzed through 90, apps that installed the company's software in order to roughly determine the amount of revenue generated by other popular apps.
This makes free-to-play the single most dominant business model in the mobile apps industry. They also learned that the number of people that spend money on in-game items in free-to-play games ranges from 0.
Even though this means that a large number of people will never spend money in a game, it also means that the people that do spend money could amount to a sizeable number because the game was given away for free.
Electronic Arts Corporate Vice-President Peter Moore speculated in June that within 5 to 10 years, all games will have transitioned to the microtransaction model.
Many consumers have referred to video game micro-transactions as a means of 'milking' their product for more profit. Consumer organizations have criticized that some video games do not describe adequately that these purchases are made with real money rather than virtual currency.
Also, some platforms do not require passwords to use a credit card to complete microtransactions.
This has resulted in customers getting unexpectedly high bills known as bill shocks. In the mid and late s, people became increasingly aware of how microtransactions operate in games, and they have become much more critical of their usage.
The commonly cited issues of microtransactions from gamers are:. The implementation of microtransactions and the subsequent backlash from gamers and the gaming media have caused governments from all around the world to look into these games and their microtransaction mechanics.
In April , the Netherlands and Belgium banned the sale of microtransactions in games sold in their countries. Games would have to remove their microtransactions in order for it to be sold in their country.
If the game companies don't comply, then Belgium's government said that it will enact "a prison sentence of up to 5 years and a fine of up to , euros".
In the United States, there have been some calls to introduce legislation to regulate microtransactions in video games, whether on mobile, consoles , or PC, and numerous attempts have been made recently to pass such legislation.
In November , Hawaii representatives Chris Lee and Sean Quinlan, during a news conference, explained how loot boxes and microtransactions prey on children and that they are working to introduce bills into their state's house and senate.
The United Kingdom has also been closely observing microtransactions, especially loot boxes, and their effects on children. A major report by the UK Parliament 's House of Commons and the Digital, Culture, Media, and Sport Committee , released in September , called for the banning or regulation of microtransactions and loot boxes to children as well as having the games industry to take up more responsibility with regards to protecting players from the harms of microtransactions that simulate gambling.
Within the report, some of the children directly stated to the interviewers that the microtransactions and loot boxes that they encounter and subsequently buy, are just like gambling.
Instead, they suggest that certain new features to protect children should be implemented in all games featuring microtransactions, like showing the all-time spending on a child's in-game account and having limits on the amount someone can spend daily.
Alongside questioning the legality of the extensive use of microtransactions, some gamers are also questioning the morality and ethics of selling microtransactions, especially to children.
There is also a natural psychology behind both the selling of microtransactions and why people keep buying them. According to a post made by Gabe Duverge on the Touro University Worldwide TUW website, impulse buying is a good part of the psychology behind people buying microtransactions.
Another psychological aspect that is used to get players to continue playing and buying microtransactions is called loss aversion.
During the past two decades, gaming has emerged as one of the top options children go to as a means of alleviating boredom.
The primary items bought by children in these games are largely cosmetic items, specifically " skins ", which are simply costumes for their in-game avatar.
In the case of Fortnite , many of the skins are locked behind a " battle pass " that the player must pay for.
A "battle pass" is a tiered system where the player buys the pass. By completing challenges and missions, they earn in-game items like weapons, skins, experience, emotes special animations used to taunt opponents, celebrate victories, dance, and show-off , and more.
A majority of the children surveyed feel that these kinds of microtransaction systems in their online games are complete rip-offs.
Some other statistics and thoughts regarding loot boxes specifically were also collected from the children. For many children, the excitement that they feel when they open loot boxes, packs, and obtain items through microtransactions is very addictive to them.
The excitement and suspense is amplified when the experience is felt alongside friends. To them, opening packs creates variety because they can play some football games in the Ultimate Team game mode and then open some packs when they get bored of playing normal football matches.
Children might want to fit-in by paying for microtransactions and loot boxes and obtaining very rare items in front of their friends, creating a lot of hype and excitement among them.
This makes paying for microtransactions a very positive experience for them. However, when children buy items in front of their friends, peer pressure often set in.
Essentially, when everyone around them has it, they will want it too in order to feel like a part of the group. Peer pressure is not the only way children's social gaming experiences are altered.
As noted in both the Parent Zone report and the Children's Commissioner's assessment, children who play Fortnite , explained that classism , as in discrimination against people of different economic and social classes, exists among the players of the game.
The media that children consume outside of the game can also affect their social interactions and in-game spending. A popular mode of entertainment for children is watching YouTube videos of other people playing their favorite games.
The children watch in anticipation, wondering what rare players the pack may produce. Then, they see the jubilant, over-the-top screaming and reactions from the YouTuber, which makes the children happy, too, despite them not actually getting the player themselves.
As a result, they go into the game and spend a lot of money buying player packs hoping to get a rare player just like the YouTuber that they just watched.
The amount of money that children spend on microtransactions has continued to grow because the design of these online games, as well as other outside influences, have made spending money for in-game content an essential aspect of the game itself.
The children apologized to their parents and explained that at the time they did not understand how much they were impacting the family's financial situation.
Viel Vergnügen! Das ändert jedoch nichts an dem grundlegenden Problem: einem schlechten Gamedesign, das im Kern auf Kaufanreize statt Belohnungen setzt.
Denn neue Charaktere und Lootboxen schaltet der Spieler mit Kredits frei, die als Belohnung im Spiel nur sehr spärlich ausfallen. Weil zudem der Inhalt der Lootboxen zufällig generiert wird, ist der Spieler gezwungen, zu grinden.
Sicher kann man internationalen Konzernen wie Activision, EA oder Take-Two keinen Vorwurf daraus machen, Geld zu verdienen — zumindest nicht, solange man keine grundlegende Diskussion über den Kapitalismus im Jahrhundert vom Zaun brechen will.
Aber der Fokus der Publisher sollte darauf liegen, das denkbar beste Spiel zu machen, und nicht den meisten Profit. Gefällt mir Gefällt mir nicht.
Bitte wählen Sie aus, was Ihnen nicht gefallen hat.Mit dem Handel digitaler Güter entstanden ganz neue Geschäftsfelder. Später geht's auch in die Wüste. Electronic Arts Inc. The collection of this data on visit web page, although technically legal in the United States, or outside the EUcan be considered unethical. Das ändert jedoch Mikrotransaktionen an dem grundlegenden Problem: einem schlechten Gamedesign, das im Kern auf Kaufanreize statt Belohnungen setzt. Fakten Meinung. In: Empirische Sonderpädagogik 2. Kategorien : Wirtschaftsinformatik Unbarer Zahlungsverkehr.